Discussion on the development of logistics and pac

2022-08-09
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Discussion on the development of logistics and packaging in China in the 21st century (IV)

IV. the development prospect of logistics and distribution in China 1. Analysis of the economic environment and market conditions for the development of logistics and distribution in China

after 20 years of reform and opening up and sustained and rapid economic development, China has initially possessed the economic environment and market conditions for the development of logistics management and distribution technology

(1) the relationship between market supply and demand has changed seriously. Sometimes in order to reduce the weight, non-ferrous metals such as aluminum alloy and special metals have also been adopted. The market competition has further intensified, providing a good economic environment for enterprises to strengthen scientific management and develop logistics management and distribution technology. With the deepening of the market-oriented reform, China's economy has maintained a sustained and rapid growth trend for many years, and the relationship between supply and demand in the commodity market has undergone fundamental changes, breaking the long-standing market pattern of goods in short supply, and initially forming a buyer's market pattern of supply and demand balance or oversupply

(2) the deepening of enterprise reform has cultivated the necessary micro foundation for the development of logistics management and distribution technology. Promoting enterprise reform and focusing on cultivating market players is an important aspect in the process of market-oriented reform. Its main progress is reflected in the decentralization and benefit transfer of state-owned enterprises and the establishment of a modern enterprise system, so that state-owned enterprises gradually change from plan executors to market players. So far, the vast majority of the more than 300000 state-owned enterprises in the country have achieved market-oriented operation, and only more than 10000 enterprises have undertaken the national plan. Among more than 14000 large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises, more than one third have implemented corporate transformation, and 50% of small state-owned enterprises have completed reorganization and restructuring? 0%。 At the same time, due to the breakthrough of ownership theory and the guidance of reform and opening-up policies, especially the policy of vigorously developing small and medium-sized enterprises in recent years, a large number of non-state-owned economic market players have grown rapidly and become economic forces that cannot be ignored in China's economic development

(3) the progress of modern information technology and modern commodity logistics technology has prepared a sufficient technical foundation for the rapid development of logistics and distribution in China. Advanced information technology and commodity logistics technology are widely used in modern logistics management and distribution technology, which have become increasingly perfect in western developed countries. At present, a considerable number of logistics and distribution technologies have begun to enter China and have been more and more widely used in enterprises, such as ± 1% bar code technology with an accuracy of 20% of the starting value of each range, computer-supported information management technology, EDI, MRP, etc

(4) the government's policy support for logistics and distribution. In order to vigorously promote the reform of the circulation system and the modernization of circulation, the standard software has built-in gb/t228.1 (2) 010, gb/t1040 (2) 008, gb/t528 (1) 998 and other more than 30 experimental standard processes. In order to promote the development of chain operation and other organizational forms, the relevant departments of the state have adopted policies to actively encourage and support commodity logistics and distribution. Relevant leading comrades of the State Council have repeatedly emphasized the vital role of distribution centers in the development of chain operations. The former Ministry of domestic trade put forward the policy measures of developing distribution centers in the "national chain operation development plan". In the opening-up policy of China's circulation sector, foreign capital is encouraged to invest in logistics and distribution facilities. At present, domestic logistics and distribution services have developed rapidly, and logistics distribution has become an important means for many enterprises to reduce costs and improve competitiveness. For example, a considerable number of retail enterprises that implement chain operation have established their own distribution centers to provide logistics distribution services for chain points within the enterprise. The proportion of goods distributed by some chain enterprises has exceeded 50% of the varieties of enterprises. In terms of socialized logistics distribution, some state-owned commercial wholesale enterprises and large retail enterprises are actively exploring and trying to carry out socialized logistics distribution services, such as Beijing Yishang group, Xidan shopping mall, etc; Foreign capital has also developed rapidly in the field of logistics and distribution services. For example, China National storage and Transportation Corporation and Japan Ganggu Steel Machinery Co., Ltd. jointly established Tianjin Ganggu logistics company, which is a new type of circulation organization integrating distribution, processing, warehousing, consignment, leasing, repair, exhibition and sales and technical consulting. There are as many as 10 joint venture logistics companies in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and other places. They mainly provide logistics distribution services for multinational companies investing in China, and have become a powerful competitive weapon for multinational companies to compete in the Chinese market

2 main problems affecting and restricting the development of logistics and distribution in China

(1) Chinese enterprises lack correct and sufficient understanding of logistics and distribution

although the research on logistics and distribution began as early as the 1980s, and the academia and relevant competent government departments have more understanding and understanding of logistics and distribution, the understanding of logistics and distribution is still very vague in the whole society, especially in enterprises

(2) the shortage of talents in logistics and distribution is a huge obstacle to the development of logistics and distribution.

from the development experience of foreign logistics and distribution, enterprises require logistics and distribution practitioners to have a certain level of logistics knowledge and practical experience. Therefore, the education and training of logistics and distribution in foreign countries are very developed, and a relatively reasonable education and training system of logistics and distribution talents has been formed. Logistics management majors have been set up in a considerable number of universities and colleges, and logistics courses have been widely opened for students majoring in business administration; Second, some commercial colleges and universities have set up graduate courses and degree education in the direction of logistics, forming a certain scale graduate education system; Third, under the leadership and advocacy of national logistics industry associations, we have comprehensively carried out vocational education in logistics and distribution. It should be noted that vocational education is the most important and economic way to cultivate logistics and distribution talents. Logistics practitioners in many countries must receive vocational education and obtain professional qualifications before they can engage in logistics and distribution. Comparatively speaking, China's education in logistics and distribution is still very backward. Only about 10 colleges and universities have Logistics Majors and courses, accounting for only 1% of all colleges and universities in China; Graduate level education has just begun; Doctoral education is far from beginning; Vocational education is even poorer, and enterprises that train employees through entrusted training are also rare. According to a headhunting company specializing in foreign enterprises in Beijing, the demand for logistics managers in some foreign companies or their joint ventures has begun to increase in recent years, and there are very few logistics managers who basically meet the requirements of enterprises in the Beijing market

(3) the institutional environment required for the development of logistics and distribution needs to be further deepened. The institutional environment required for the development of logistics and distribution, that is, the institutional environment or market environment for enterprises to carry out normal business activities, mainly refers to the financing system, property right transfer system, talent use system, market access or exit system, social security system, etc. At present, these institutional reforms are far from meeting the needs of enterprise management and the requirements of market economic system reform. When an enterprise improves its logistics efficiency, it must involve the reallocation of various logistics resources within the enterprise and between the enterprise and the market. As the above-mentioned system reform has not yet been in place, the reallocation of logistics resources by enterprises according to the principle of economic rationality will be hindered. For example, when choosing external logistics services, enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises, will inevitably affect the improvement of enterprise logistics efficiency due to the obstacles encountered by enterprises in disposing of the original storage, transportation and other facilities and personnel. Therefore, to further deepen the system reform is the current 6 The gap between the force measuring piston and the force measuring cylinder is very large, which is the most urgent task facing China's economic reform and development, and is also a necessary condition for the development of logistics and distribution

(4) prospects and prospects for the development of logistics and distribution in China

at present, the economic environment and market conditions for the development of logistics and distribution have been preliminarily established in China's economy. In the long run, with the continuous promotion of reform, the development of logistics and distribution in China will enter a new stage, and its prospects are very promising. In the near future, the development of logistics and distribution will also be restricted by the above problems, and it is difficult to develop rapidly, but it does not rule out the development opportunities in some industrial fields, mainly as follows: first, in foreign-invested enterprises, the market demand for the development of logistics and distribution will still maintain the momentum of rapid development; Second, the market demand for the development of logistics and distribution has begun to sprout for advantageous enterprises that have gradually expanded in the market competition; Third, socialized logistics centers and distribution centers serving small and medium-sized retail enterprises, and the logistics and distribution business within the fast-growing chain commercial enterprises have started and entered the stage of standardized development

in order to promote the development of logistics and distribution, the government also needs to make more active efforts. Its role is to actively promote the reform of enterprises and the development of market system, and create a better external environment for the development of logistics and distribution. To strengthen the education and training of logistics and distribution, first, we should give logistics education a certain position in the discipline setting of higher education; Second, encourage multi-level and multi-faceted logistics education and training; Accelerate the pace of opening up in the field of logistics and distribution, and strengthen the contact and cooperation with international logistics in the fields of logistics and distribution technology, education, management consulting and so on

(to be continued)

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